Wallace’s Line with the Most Unique Flora and Fauna

Mount Rinjani is on the Wallace Line, which is home to some of the most unique flora and fauna in the world. Which is the boundary line between fauna and flora from Asia and Australia. So that allows a lot of wildlife in this region. Not all parts of the world are traversed by the Wallace line and the Rinjani National Park is one of them.

As the highest and most beautiful mountain in Indonesia, Mount Rinjani is the main destination for tourists to try out the steepness of the mountain. The forest area, which reaches 41,000 hectares, is vast to explore. It is interesting for us to discuss the fauna and flora in Mount Rinjani National Park.

Unique Flora and Fauna

Mount Rinjani is under the management of the Mount Rinjani National Park Center which makes it a forest area protected by the government. Therefore, it is not arbitrary to enter this area. Some provisions must be followed such as not damaging plants, vandalism, and littering. The following are the fauna and flora in the very unique Mount Rinjani National Park:

Rinjani Celepuk

celepuk rinjani (photo:kompas)

Is a type of owl with the Latin name otus jolanodea which is included in the list of endangered fauna. It is the only endemic fauna in Lombok. You will not find this type of fauna on other islands. An international conservation body (IUCN) designated it as an endangered fauna.

It is characterized by its brown color and white spots with a darker crown. It has a cleaner whistling sound.  The name of the fauna is derived from the name of Mount Rinjani.


Monkeys are familiar fauna that we see in this national park. Although, monkey animals are familiar in various forest areas in Indonesia. However, the Rinjani monkey itself has a unique characteristic that has a long tail. Its Latin name is Macaca Fascicularis. According to the international body that takes care of conservation animals, this long-tailed monkey is an endangered animal.

Read here: Know The Provisions for Hiking Mt. Rinjani

Flores Eagle

flores eagle (photo: pixabay)

This fauna whose Latin name is Nisaetus Floris is a rare fauna. It has shocked the virtual world because some time ago a baby florescent eagle was recorded learning to fly on CCTV installed by the Mount Rinjani National Park Agency. The status of this animal is protected.

Endemic Animals

Endemic animals are animals that are native to Indonesia or only inhabit certain areas and are not found in other areas. Animals native to the forests of Mount Rinjani include a Landak or porcupine (Hytrix Javanica), wild boar, Kijang or deer (Muntiacus muntjak), lutung  (Trachypithecus auratus), and fruit bats.

When you hike Mount Rinjani, these endemic animals can be found in the Mount Rinjani National Park area. Deer are often heard but rarely seen. But if you are lucky, you can see this species.

Honey Bird and White Walik

The fauna with the Latin name, lichmera lombokia, is only found here. Bird life here is a little difficult to observe because the species takes refuge behind the dense forest. However, if you can mimic the bird’s voice, it may come out of its shelter. Because of its location on the Wallace line, the forests of Mount Rinjani have species of birds that are similar to Australasia.

Meanwhile, the white walik fauna whose Latin name is Ptilinopus cintus is a very beautiful bird species. if you are lucky you might meet this one fauna. The physical form is white with a long beak.

Rinjani musang

This unique fauna also exists in the forests of Mount Rinjani. Although civet animals exist in several regions in Indonesia, the Rinjani civet has its uniqueness. Its black color, fruit-eating animals to livestock food. This lactating mammal is more commonly found near residential areas.

Orchid Plant

Did you know, Indonesia is a place for orchids? Various species of orchids exist in Indonesia including thriving in Mount Rinjani National Park. Flora whose Latin name is Vanda Lombokensis is a very beautiful flower that you can find in the forests of Mount Rinjani besides the exotic edelweiss flower.

Often referred to by local people as the orchid tasbih, because it looks like prayer beads. The shape of the head is pink and sturdy, making the orchid look very beautiful.

Edelweiss flower

illustration of edelweiss flower (photo: kompasiana)

This one flora is a flora that is the target of visitors when in the Rinjani forest. However, don’t let you pick the flower. Because edelwies are flowers that are protected by the State. Anyone who picks this flower will get sanctions from the management of the Gunung Rinjani National Park Center.

Because of the beauty of the flower, some climbers want to bring the flower home. However, every visitor will be checked at the exit. Therefore, don’t get caught carrying Edelweiss flowers.


rinjani storage cabinet rotan (photo:lazada)

Flora whose Latin name is calamus can be used as valuable objects that have high economic value. Like making chairs, tables, and cabinets. Not only rattan, the forests of the Rinjani mountain area can produce herbal foods such as honey, candlenuts to forest fruit.

Having a very large economic value makes the natural wealth of the Rinjani mountain forest the economic support of the local community in addition to its tourism potential. Therefore, preserving the Rinjani forest is a common concern so that the local community’s economy can grow.

Giant wood

Giant logs are a common sight in the Rinjani forest. Among them are Jukut (Eugenie Polyantya), paku-pakuan or ferns, beringin or banyan (ficus superba), pandan or pandanus and cemara or mountain fir (casuarina J), and alang-alang (Imperata cylindrica).

The slopes of Mount Rinjani are densely forested with tropical species including species that belong to Wallace’s region, the transitional area between Asian and Australian flora. In addition, we can find other trees such as the giant Syzigium jambu tree and other giant trees with large and sturdy wooden structures.

Read here: Join The Adventures of Hiking This Volcanic Mountain

Read also here: Lombok and Komodo Island, Piece of Heaven on Earth


Not all parts of Indonesia are crossed by the Wallace line, the island of Lombok is two of them besides the island of Sulawesi. Because of that, the Mount Rinjani forest area still has hundreds more types of endemic fauna and flora. The nuance is still very natural, starting from climbing down to the top of Rinjani is inhabited by hundreds of species of fauna and flora. Exploring the Rinjani forest is like a very educational ecological tour. Therefore, it is important to choose a trekking organizer who understands the forests of Mount Rinjani. Explore the forest while getting education about the fauna and flora in the forest.

The Mount Rinjani area which is a national park is a habitat for fauna and flora which is great for a family vacation. Besides, introduces children to endemic flora and fauna while providing nature-based school education.

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